The festival from A to Z

Ad Libitum

Small choir that sing in the „Laudate Dominum“

Ahlsen, Leopold

Author of the  Festival play

Ahlspiess

Long spear like weapon carried by the mercenaries

Albrecht (also called Achilles)

Margrave and Prince-Elector of Brandenburg.Acted as master of ceremonies during the wedding.Leads the Princely group in the procession:”The Brandenburg trumpeters” are part of his escort.

Albrecht (“The wise”)

Duke of  upper and lower Bavaria belonging to the Munich line of heritage.Escorted by a large following at the wedding.

Albrecht, Margrave of  Baden

Escort to Duke Sigmund of Tirol at the wedding

Alta Capella (Instrumental group)

Consists of two or three reed instruments accompanied by trumpet or trombone

Alte Frau von Sachsen - Old Lady of Saxony

Margarethe,the Emperors sister.Mother of the Prince-Elector of Saxony,and the Landshut Duchess Amalie.Hedwig took rest by Margerethe in Wittenberg.Margerethe accompanied the bride to
Landshut.

Anlass (Histrical background and politcal cicumstances)

Eight years before the birth of Martin Luther, and 17 years before Christopher Columbus set out to conquer new worlds Emperor Friedrich III reigned over the Holy Roman Empire of German nations.
In part dukedom Bavaria-Landshut Duke Ludwig the “Rich “has been in power for 24 years.Poland’s King Kasimir IV is ruler over an East-European  Kingdom.The wedding of Hedwig and Duke Georg was in fact of great political importance.A highly political affair as it were.
Among other things it was seen as an oportunity to set up a bastion against the Turks who had conquered Constantinopel in 1453.The Margrave Albrecht Achilles was quoted as saying “The marriage will be of advantage  and profit   to Christianity and Empire alike”

Armbrustschützen – Crossbow marksmen

Part of the ceremony since 1904.

Atzung

Available for participants and guests at the camp and jousting fields on the River Isar.

Bassa Capella (soft musical instruments)

Ensembles of  wind and string instruments.

Bischöfe-Bishops

Apart from the Archbishop of Salzburg,six other bishops were at the wedding.The bishops of Chiemsee,Augsburg,Eichstätt,Bamberg,Freising and Passau.From 1993 to 2001 the bishops were on horseback.

Braut-The Bride (Hedwig of Poland)

Princess Hedwig was born on September 21st 1475 as daughter to King Kasimir and wife Elisabeth.Elisabeth was born a Habsburg.
Hedwig’s brother Ladislaus was King of Bohemia since 1471.She lived as Duchess in Burghausen where she gave birth to five children
of which only two girls survived.The reason for the War of Succsession in 1504.Hedwig died on February 18th 1502 and is burried in the chappel of the Cistercian convent in Raitenhaslach.

Bräutigam-The Bridegroom(Duke Georg of Bavaria-Landshut)

At the time of the wedding Duke Georg was only 20 years old and was already a partial govenor.His parents were Duke Ludwig the Rich
and the Prince Electors daughter Amalie from Saxony.Georg died on December 1st 1503 in Ingolstadt.He was burried in the convent of Seligenthal in Landshut.His death caused the “Landshut war of succession” the reason being that Duke Albrecht von Bavaria-Munich and King Maximilian refused to recognise Duke Georg’s last will and testament which was written to great advantage of his  daughter Elisabeth(married to Rupprecht von der Pfalz)

Buchskränzlein-Boxgarland

Garland of Box leaves worn by the maidens and ladies and serves as a symbol of friendship, luck and good fortune.A “trade mark” of the Festival. First seen at the wedding of the Hungarian King in 1476.”The bride placed a boxgarland on the bridegroom’s head as a symbol of love and affection.

Burghausen

Old Dukes residence and family seat of the Bavarian Dukes of the Landshut heritage since the 14th century.

Busine

Long  thin trumpet. Busine trumpeters.A music group at the wedding.

Cantorion

Vocal ensemble. Can be heard by the “Music around 1475”

Christine

The “Old Lady of Saxony’s” granddaughter. Was at her grandmother’s side during the wedding week.

Christoph der Starke (Christoph the strong. Duke of Bavaria)

He came with his brothers  Albrecht and Wolfgang and was the “star”of the jousting tournament.

Chrotta

A square shaped string insrument of celtic origin.

Cinque Bombardi

Bläser group under the direction of August Huth.They play at “Music around 1475,and Festival of Dance.

Deutschordenskomture (from Gangkofen and Blumenthal)

Members of the German monastic orders.With the same group as the religeous and church officials.

Dominikaner (Members of the Dominican order)

Drehleier, Dudelsack und Dulcian
( Hurdy-Gurdy, Bagpipes, Bassoon )                                                               

Historical instruments which can be heard during the festival and pageant.Played at “Court Music of the Dukes”and “Music around 1475.

Dudelsack –Bagpipes

Wind instrument with bag or Sack.

Edeldamen (Ladies in waiting, also so called “virgins”)

The Margrave of Brandenburg brought over 100 with him! The bride watched the jousting with six “virgins” They form a complete group in the festival.

Elisabeth

a) The bride’s mother,born to the house of Habsburg.
b) First daughter born to Hedwig.

Erbfolgekrieg (Landshut 1504) ”War of sccession”

Led to the death of Elisabeth and her husband Count Rupprecht and put an end to the part-dukedom  Bavaria-Landshut –Munich.Thereafter Landshut lost its independance.

Fahnenschwinger - Flagwavers

A festival group with wave,and throwing flags.Some flags bear the emblems of the royal guests.

Fahrendes Volk-Vagabunds and Gypsies


Festival group at the end of the procession.An “uncouth” group of characters,neverthelss they lend a touch of colour to the pageant.


Falkner

Duke Georg was himself a famous falkner and hunter.The falkner with their “birds of prey”form a group in the procession.

Fanfarenbläser-Fanfare trumpeters

There are two groups in the festival The Polish and The Emperors.The Emperors trumpeters are mounted.

Feyerldäntzer – Feyerl dancers

A group of players and dancers.

Fidel - Fidle

A stringed instrument with wooden corpus widely used in Europe in the Middle-Ages.

Friedrich III (Emperor)

Emperor Friedrich and his son Maximilian were related to the bride and bridegroom.They were travelling from Cologne to Vienna.The Emperor had tried in vain to obtain a large credit from the bride’s father.

Fundus - Costumes and requisites

Sum of the costumes, weapons,carriages,wagons and all the things that have been made for the pageant.

Föderer - Patrons association or “Promoters”

The association was founded in 1902 and have been promoters of the wedding since 1903.It has over 5800 members!

Gambe (Viola da gamba)
Stringed instrument.


Gaukler

Acrobatic artists and jugglers who perform during the festival.

Georg (der Reiche)


see Bräutigam (bridegroom)

Gesandte-Ambassadors

Ambassadors of the many Imperial-Free-Cities,with the City standards.

Gesinde

Servants and court staff.

Grasser, Erasmus

A Munich wood sculptor.Creator of the “Morisken”or “Mauren”
a dancing group in the festival.

Grieswärtel (Tournament officials on the jousting field)

Gulden - Guilders or Florin

32,000 was the sum that was settled as dowry,a part of which was claimed by grandson Count Palatine Ottheinrich.the wedding cost 60,766  which today would mean many millions (Euro)

Guttenstein, Burian von (Burian of Guttenstein)

The King of Bohemia’s ambassador.Ladislaus King of Bohemia was Hedwig’s brother.

Hallo

This is the way the participants of the wedding greet the guests and visitors.Since the beginning of the this great pageant “Hallo” has been the official wedding greeting.

Harnisch-Suit of armour

Suits of protective armour worn to avoid wounding in battle and injury at the jousting tournament.The armour was inspected by officials before the tournament.

Haug von Werdenberg

The Emperors officer.On the morning of the wedding he brought the Emperors wedding gift.

Hedwig in Polish “Jadwiga”

See  Braut or bride.

Herold

They announced  the rules of the tournament prior to the joust.

Herzogliche Wachen - The Dukes Guard

Hetmann - Headman or Leader of the mercenaries

Himmel Landshut - Tausend Landshut

An historical name given to Landshut before the wedding.The townsfolk were proud of their town which was “polished like a jewel”

Hochzeitsmahl - The Wedding Banquet

The Princes feasted at the Tollhouse (Where the Residence is today)
The ladies however feasted at the Queen’s quarters which is today the
“Sparkasse Building”in the midle of the town.The bridegroom sat at the Emperors side,while the bride dined with her mother-in-law.During the wedding week it is recorded that 323 oxen,285 pigs,1133 Hungarian sheep,1537 lambs,490 calves,11,500 geese,40,000 chickens and 194,345 eggs.146 cooks were paid from the Duke’s treasury.


Hofkapelle - Court musicians

Landshut Court musicians.Singers and musicians who play in various concerts and dances.They can be seen in the procession.

Hofkasten

Gothic store- house in the upper part of the Oldtown.Oats for horsefeed was distributed here.(There were 9163 horses in Landshut at the time of the wedding!)

Hofmusik - Court music

Landshut Court music 1965-97 under the direction of Hans Walch.A realisation of the historical music of 1475.
“The Duke’s Court music”Trumpet music under the direction of Hermann Ingerl,

Horuskowitz, Seis (Sesime)von

Duke Georg’s General and commander of the Guard.

Häscher

See Duke’s Guard.a group at the festival.

Högner Franz-Franz Högner-artist

Artist and painter in Landshut (died in1979)For many years artistic advisor.

Joculatores

Minstrel and music group who play at the Tavern at the Steckengasse.

Jud, Thomas, auf Bruckberg bei Landshut

Keeper and writer of records at the Convent of Seligenthal.Hans Seybold was the Wedding Chronist and completed it in 1482.
It is to be found in the Bavarian State Library in Munich.

Junker

Young aristocrats.They also form a group in the festival in the” Court colours”of Landshut.Brown, white and grey.

Kammerfrauen

Women volunteers who work for the association, especially with costumes and acesiors.

Kanzler

See "Mair"

Knappen - Knaves or Squires

Assistents and  helpers to the tournament Knights.

Komödianten - Comedians

A  group at the festival. ( At the play and at the “camp life” )

Krakau-Cracow

Residence of the Polish royals. Where the “engagement” was made.

Krummhorn

Curved wooden wind instrument.

Ladislaus

King of Bohemia,and Hedwig’s brother.Wasn’t at the wedding,which made the Emperor quite angry,probably because he wanted finacial help from him.The Emperor also needed help from Duke Ludwig.

Lagerplatz - Camp

Rest place  for the participants on Saturday and Sunday evenings.The visitors and guests can mingle with the “actors” in a relaxed atmosphere.

Lajkonik

A legendary horseman (Tatar Prince) from Cracows’ history. He appears in the festival play.

Landständehaus, heute “Alte Post”

Decorated with paintings of  Princes,this building in the Oldtown was once the  conference hall for the Lower Bavarian land administration.

Linnbrunner

Joseph Linnbrunner together with Georg Tippel founded the “Patrons association” in 1902 and can rightly be called creators of the “Landshuter Hochzeit”

Ludwig (der Reiche) Ludwig the “rich”

Duke of  upper and lower Bavaria (Landshut heritage line)He was the bridegroom’s father,and during wedding was plagued by gout.In the procession  carried in a sedan-chair.

Mair, Dr. Martin

Chancellor in Duchy Bavaria-Landshut,humanist and politician.Since 1937 he has escorted Ludwig in the procession.

Margerethe

Margerethe is Duchess Amalie of Landshut’s mother,and called “the old lady of Saxony”She accompanied Hedwig from Wittenberg to Landshut.

Marketenderinnen

Women who travel with the mercenaries and other groups.
They offered their service in many ways.

Margrave

see “Albrecht Achilles”

Markgrafenschreiber

The name of the man who documented  eye- witness reports.(The originals are in the State archives in Weimar)His name was discovered (Hanns Ering or Ohring) in 1975.He was oart of the Margraves’entourage.

Martinskirche - St. Martins church.

Archbishop Bernhard of  Salzburg  performed the wedding ceremony at the high alter of St.Martins on November 14th 1475.St.Martin was still under construction at the time,so the “wedding bells” were rung at St.Jodok.

Martinspfeifer

Group of players at the festival.

Mauerkircher, Dr.Friedrich

Provost of Altötting: Active in sealing the wedding contract.

Maximilian


Escorted his father the Emperor.Was later King and Emperor and called “The Last Knight”

Mitgift-Dowry

see “Gulden”

Monawitt

Albert of Monawittis the leader of the
Polish delegation which were about 150 persons.Amongst them was Thomas Trintschinky,vice-treasurer to the King and Canon of the churches of Cracow and Posen.The court tutor and Marshall were also with the group.

Morisken (Mauren) - Moors

see “Grasser”

Mummenschanz - Masquerades

Evening event with music and dance in the courtyard of the residence.

Musica Cumpaneia

Vocal and instrument group.

Narr - Court Jester

With Duke Ludwig

Oberndorfers Haus

In the Oldtown under the arches.Today it is a “Sparkasse”bank.this is where Hedwig lodged,ate the wedding meal and watched the jousting
tounament  from a window.

Otman Kalixt

Is with the Dukes following,referred to as “The Turkish Emperor’s brother” and was christened by Pope Kalixt.

Ottheinrich

Duchess Hedwig’s grandson.Lived as Count-Palatine in Neuburg on the Danube.Died in 1559 as Prince-Elector and last in succession to
Hedwig.He was an important patron of the arts.

Otto (von Neumarkt)

Count-Palatine.Leader of the delegation to Wittenberg.

Pagen-Pages

Children of the nobility.Apprentices at the court and called to do diverse tasks at the festival.

Pest - Black Death or Plague

Forced the bridal convoy to take a long detour.Several members of the Polish party died after returning.

Pfalzgräfliche Pfeifer

The Count-Palatine`s pipers.A music group at the festival.

Pferde-Horses

The feed-chits or dockets show that 8863 horses had to be attended to.
It is estimated that there were around 10,000 guests who had to be provided for for eight days.As many guests as Landshut’s residents in 1475.

Philipp (von Amberg) Pfalzgraf

Count-Palatine

Married to the bridegroom’s sister.

Plattner-Armouror

Armour maker.Specialist for making armour and protective plating.
Margrave Albrecht brought his own with him.

Pommer-Bombard

Wind instrument with finger holes and valves.

Portativ-Orgel

Small portable organ with bellows and pipes.

Preysing, Graf von - The Count of Preysing

Accompanies Duke Ludwig’s cortege.

Radom

It was here that the marriage contract was sgned and sealed on 31.12.1474

Raitenhaslach

Cistercian convent.The resting place of those Wittelsbachers who lived and died in Burghausen,including Hedwig.Inscriptions in the chappel vaults and  in the stone floors tell the story.

Rathaus-Prunksaal

State - Room in the Townhall

see chapter: “Rathaus-Gemälde”  (The Townhall Paintings)

Rathausfresken - Town-hall Paintings

The architecht Georg Haubrisser reconstucted the town-hall in 1860 into a neo-Gothic style.Historical artists from Munich painted the picture cycle in the State room which reminds us of Landshut’s glorious past,and its most famous event.

Ratsherren - Councillors


see "Gesandte"

Reigen - Round dance

A form of dance performed in the play and for the camp guests.

Reisige

A large groop of mercenaries who enjoy singing!They form a large group in the festival.

Rennzeug

Special jousting equipment made for the “Tilting Alley” Faithful and authentic reproductions were made by Mr.Walter Suckert

Ringelstechen - Ring lancing

An impressive display of equestrian skill in which the horsemen show their precision and speed with the lance.

Ritter –Knight


“Iron Knights” or knights in armour have been a tradition sine the baroque Corpus christi procession.In the bridal procession they represent noblemen in armour and jousting knights.

Roland - Stechen

A show of horsemen’s skills at the tournament games.

Rosenblüt, Hans

Nürnberger poet who composed a song of praise for Duke Ludwig.
The song is performed by the craftsmans guilld during the “Festival Games”

Röckl

A character from Landshut’s history.It is said a conspiracy against Duke Heinrich was planned in his house between 1408 and 1410.

Salzburg

The Archbishop,as metropolit for the Bavarian diocese  conducted the wedding ceremony.He was accompanied by his music group,”The Salzburger Trumeter”

Salzstadel

Once called “The Duke’s Chest”Since  1380  it was used as a store-house for grain and salt.It is brick built with three levels and has a lage painted coat of arms dating from the 15th century.

Schaller

Protective helmet used by the jousting knights.

Schalmei - Shalm or Shawm

Tall wind instrument with double reeds,and without valves.A group at the festival.

Scholaren


A music group.

Seybolt

see “Jud”

Sigmund (von Tirol)

A wedding guest, and  tournament knight.

Sinowitz

Court tutor to the bride.

Stablichter - Flame torch

Once carried by the townfolk who escorted the bride to the church,later by the guild members at the festive games.

Stadler, Karl (died 1957)

Teacher and author.Member of the “Patrons” steering commitee.He reformed the pageant and was festival director before and after the war.

Stadtknechte - Townguard

A festival group

Stechrosse - Lancing steed

This was name given to the jousting horses by the nobility.
They brought the horses with them  especially for the tournament.

Sänfte - Sedan chair.

see Ludwig

Tartsche


A plate or coat of arms on the jousting equipment


Tavern

Tavern or Inn

Tippel

see  “Linnbrunner”

Trausnitz


The name given to Landshut’s “castle” since the 15th century

Trintschinky, Thomas

King Kasimir’s vice treasurer. He accompanied Hedwig and attended to the dowry register.

Truchsess-Steward

Stewards and serving staff.Also master of ceremonies and  royal kitchen at  the festival.

Turnier - Tournament  Jousting   Tilting

Originally the “runs” were held in the Oldtown. Today the Bridal procession on Sunday afternoons flows back into the tournament field
where flag-wavers, jugglers,mercenaries and ringlancers pay homage to the newlyweds.In the tournament of the “Iron Knights” noblemen do battle to win a prize from Hedwig’s fair hand.When Christoph the Strong rides against a Polish prince,we can again relive an event that was remembered for ages.This scene describes how the two knights delivered a breath- taking fight.An atmosphere of tension and excitement can be felt over the Field of Challenge as the brave warrior Christoph tries to “Break his lance”as he did in 1475

Wappner

see  “Horuskowitz”


Weiter Weg nach Landshut. The long journey to Landshut.

In the Spring of 1474 Dr.Friedrich Mauerkircher,the provost of Altötting  rode to Cracow  as marriage suitor and solicitor.Thereafter a royal councillor of Kasimir’s court came to Landshut.On New Years Eve in Radom the marriage contract was signed and sealed.On October 15th 1475 Hedwig was consigned to the Bavarian Duke’s delegation in Wittenberg.They had to travel around Bohemia,via Berlin,Nürnberg,Regensburg and Moosburg to reach Landshut.

Westerstetten, Ludwig von

Duke Georg  jousted with  Westerstetten on the eve of the wedding.A somewhat reckless thing to do due to the risk of injury.However the guests that had already arrived were thrilled,and greatly enjoyed the
“gallop”It is said the young noblewomen looked down from their windows in the Oldtown and waved with their kerchiefs.
Westerstetten is a knight in the tournament.

Wiesmahd - Field of Challenge

It is here where Hedwig was first greeted as she reached Landshut.
The tournament is held here.

Wittenberg

It was here that Hedwig stayed until she was handed to the Bavarian delegation from the Polish envoy.

Zehrplatz

Adjacent the tournament field and camp.There guests can buy some of the many delicious things on offer,for instance roasted ox which is turned on a spit.The cooks and  court stewards are busy tending to the needs of the nobilty.

Zelter


Riding horses on which 14 noblewomen of the Margrave were mounted.

Zeughaus

In 1983 the “Patrons association” built their storage building next to the tournament ground.It is used to store the costumes wagons weapons and other requisites used in the pageant.During the festival weeks there horses are kept in stables at the “Zeughaus”

Zinken

Wooden wind instrument with finger holes and copper mouthepiece.
The zinkenisten form a group at the festival

Zollhaus

The Emperors lodging during the wedding week.It was here that the male nobility celebrated the wedding banquet.In the 16th century it was rebuilt and became the Town Residence. (The first Renaissance palace north of the alps.)

Zünfte - Guild of Craftsmen or Tradesmen

Represented in their own group at the festival.They have their own flags with the emblems of their trades.

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